The Anchored Instruction Educational Model was introduced in 1990 by The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University, with John Bransford overseeing the research and considered to be the “founder” of Anchored Instruction. Since its inception, The Cognition and Technology Group has designed a wide range of multimedia programs that are based upon the Anchored Instruction Educational Model. In this article, I’ll briefly explain 3 basic principles of the Anchored Instruction and I’ll give you some ideas about its practical application in eLearning course design.
Instructional Design Models And Theories: The Situated Cognition Theory And The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model
The Situated Cognition Theory, outlined by Brown, Collins, and Duguid in 1989, is centered around the idea that knowing is “inseparable” from actually doing and highlights the importance of learning within context. In the same year, Brown, Collins, and Newman also developed the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model, in which they identified several teaching methods for learning within context. In this article, I’ll briefly explain the basic principles of both the Situated Cognition Theory and the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model and I’ll give you some tips concerning the practical application of each in eLearning course design.
The Cognitive Flexibility Theory, introduced by Spiro, Feltovich, and Coulson in 1988, is about how learning takes place in “complex” and “ill-structured domains”. In essence, it’s a theory that strives to determine how the human mind can obtain and manage knowledge and how it restructures our existing knowledge base, based on the new information received. Research on the Cognitive Flexibility Theory has sought scientific evidence with respect to how knowledge is represented within the learner's mind, as well as which internal processes take place according to the mental representations we receive. In this article, I’ll briefly explain basic principles of the Cognitive Flexibility Theory and I’ll give you some ideas about its practical applications in the eLearning course design.
John Keller is the founder of the ARCS Model of Motivation, which is based upon the idea that there are four key elements in the learning process which can encourage and sustain learners’ motivation. These four elements form the acronym ARCS of the model and stand for Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction (ARCS). In this article, I’ll describe each one of them and I’ll share some of the eLearning strategies that eLearning professionals need to know in order to develop really engaging eLearning courses.
The Component Display Theory was introduced in 1983 by M. David Merrill to work alongside Reigeluth's Theory, with the first detailing the “micro elements” of an effective instructional design, though Reigeluth's theory the “macro elements”. The Component Display Theory soon gained popularity among instructional designers and in 1994 Merrill presented a new version of it, known as the Component Design Theory. In this article, I’ll go through its basic principles and how they can be applied to instructional design for eLearning.
The Action Learning Model was first introduced by Professor Reginald Revans in 1980, who was a noted physicist and the first known Industrial Management Professor.
The Elaboration Theory was introduced by Charles Reigeluth, an American educational theorist in 1979. The Elaboration Theory supports that the content organization should be presented in increasing order of difficulty.
Leo Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, introduced the Sociocultural Learning Theory. His quote that “through others we become ourselves” could be the quintessence of the Sociocultural Learning Theory, which supports that learning is a social process.
The Generative Learning Theory was introduced in 1974 by Merlin C. Wittrock an American educational psychologist. The Generative Learning Theory is based on the idea that learners can actively integrate new ideas into their memory to enhance their educational experience. In essence, it involves linking new with old ideas, in order to gain a better understanding of the instructed concepts.
The Dual Coding Theory was introduced by the Emeritus Professor of Psychology Allan Paivio in 1971.
The Keller Plan, which is often referred to as “The Personalized System of Instruction”, was developed in the middle sixties by Fred Keller, J. Gilmour Sherman, and a number of other researchers and educational theorists, and relies upon the Individualized Instruction Model.
The Subsumption Learning Theory was developed in 1963 by the American psychologist David Ausubel. The theory focuses on how individuals acquire and learn large chunks of information through visual means or text materials.